The Samoyed, with its radiant white coat, gentle expression, and famous “Sammy smile,” is more than just a beautiful and elegant dog. This breed is a versatile, hardworking companion known for its friendly disposition and hearty spirit.

General Info About the Breed

Samoyeds are a member of the Spitz family, distinguished by their fluffy white coats, curled tails, and perky ears. They are medium to large dogs known for their ability to endure cold climates, a trait inherited from their history as working dogs in Siberia. Samoyeds are not just charming and affectionate; they are also robust, energetic, and intelligent.

History and Origins of the Samoyed

The Samoyed, with its distinctive fluffy coat and amiable disposition, boasts a rich and storied history that dates back several centuries. This breed originated from the icy expanses of Siberia and has played a crucial role in the survival of the people in these harsh climates.

Ancient Siberian Roots

The breed is named after the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. These nomadic reindeer herders bred the dogs for various purposes: to herd reindeer, hunt game, and pull sleds. The Samoyed’s endurance, strength, and ability to withstand cold temperatures made them indispensable to the Siberian tribes.

Working and Living Alongside Humans

The Samoyed’s role extended beyond that of a working dog; they were valued companions and often slept with their owners to provide warmth in the extremely cold Siberian nights. This close relationship with humans helped shape the breed’s friendly and loyal nature.

Introduction to the Western World

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, explorers of the Arctic and Antarctic regions brought Samoyeds to Europe and America. The breed’s ability to endure cold conditions made them ideal for polar expeditions. One of the most notable Samoyeds, Etah, led the first team to reach the South Pole under Roald Amundsen in 1911.

The Show Ring and Breed Development

The Samoyed quickly became popular in England, and the breed’s standard began to take shape. They were admired not only for their working abilities but also for their striking appearance and friendly demeanor. The first standard for the breed was adopted in England in 1909.

Evolution of the Breed

Over time, the Samoyed evolved from a hardy working dog into a beloved companion and show dog. While they retain many of their ancestral traits, including their thick white coat and sturdy build, modern Samoyeds are more commonly found in family homes than on sledding expeditions.

A Symbol of Cheerfulness and Strength

The breed’s “Sammy smile” – the slight, but the perpetual curve of the mouth – is not just a physical trait but also reflects the breed’s affable and gentle nature. The Samoyed today is celebrated as a versatile, joyful, and affectionate breed, capable of both hard work and providing loving companionship.

The history of the Samoyed is a testament to the breed’s adaptability and enduring bond with humans. From the frozen tundras of Siberia to the comfort of modern homes, the Samoyed has journeyed through centuries, bringing its unique blend of cheerfulness, resilience, and loyalty.




Size Characteristics of the Samoyed

The Samoyed is a medium to large-sized dog breed known for its powerful, yet graceful, build. Here’s a detailed look at their size characteristics:


  • Males: Typically stand between 21 to 23.5 inches tall at the shoulder.
  • Females: Slightly smaller, they usually stand between 19 to 21 inches tall.


  • Males: Generally weigh between 45 to 65 pounds.
  • Females: Tend to weigh between 35 to 50 pounds.

These measurements can vary slightly from one individual to another. The key is that the weight should be in proportion to the height, giving the Samoyed a balanced and harmonious appearance.


The Samoyed’s body is powerful and muscular with a sturdy bone structure, yet they move with a grace that belies their strength. They are slightly longer than they are tall, contributing to their agile and nimble movement.

Body Structure

Samoyeds possess a broad chest and strong back, with well-sprung ribs and a deep body that descends to the level of the elbows. Their muscular loins and strong hindquarters provide the power needed for pulling and working.


Overall, Samoyeds are built to combine power and agility. They have the strength needed for their original roles in pulling sleds and herding reindeer, paired with the elegance required of a show dog. Their physical build reflects their heritage as working dogs in challenging Arctic environments.

Comparison with Similar Breeds

In terms of size, Samoyeds are comparable to breeds like the Siberian Husky and Alaskan Malamute, though they are generally less stocky than Malamutes. They share the spitz-like characteristics with these breeds, such as a thick double coat, erect ears, and a curling tail.


The Samoyed is perhaps best known for its brilliant white, dense double coat, which was developed to protect them from the harsh Siberian cold. They have a sturdy, muscular build with a broad head, erect triangular ears, and dark, almond-shaped eyes that contrast strikingly with their white fur. Their tail is another distinctive feature, curled over their back and covered in long, dense fur.

A well-proportioned Samoyed should appear dignified and intelligent, with a robust physique that displays both strength and agility. Their size contributes to their ability to function as both a hard-working dog in cold climates and a versatile family pet.

The Samoyed’s size and build are a testament to their history as hardy working dogs, and their graceful movement highlights the breed’s elegance and beauty.




Temperament of the Samoyed

The Samoyed is celebrated not only for its stunning appearance but also for its engaging and friendly temperament. Here’s a detailed look at the behavioral characteristics of the Samoyed:

Friendly and Sociable

Samoyeds are known for their friendly disposition. They generally have a cheerful attitude and enjoy being around people. Their sociable nature often extends to strangers, making them poor choices for guard dogs but excellent for families and social environments.

Good with Children and Other Animals

With proper socialization, Samoyeds typically get along well with children and other animals. They are playful and gentle, often showing patience with children. However, like with any breed, interactions between dogs and young children should always be supervised.

Intelligent and Independent

Samoyeds are intelligent dogs, but they can also display a degree of independence or stubbornness. This trait stems from their heritage as working dogs, where they often had to make decisions on their own.

Active and Playful

They have a playful side and enjoy activities that involve interaction with their owners. Samoyeds are not couch potatoes; they thrive on being active and engaged.

Affectionate and Loyal

Samoyeds form strong bonds with their families and are known for being loyal and affectionate. They often prefer to be involved in family activities and can suffer from separation anxiety if left alone for extended periods.

Sensitive to Their Environment

Samoyeds are quite sensitive to the tone of voice and mood of their owners. Harsh training methods are not effective and can lead to a Samoyed shutting down. They respond best to positive reinforcement techniques.

Vocal Tendencies

Samoyeds can be vocal, often using their voice to express themselves. Training can help manage excessive barking.


Samoyeds can adapt well to various living situations, but they do best in environments where they have space to move and play. They are suited to both house and apartment living, as long as their exercise needs are met.

In summary, the Samoyed’s temperament makes them a delightful companion for active individuals and families who can provide them with the attention, exercise, and training they require. Their friendly and affectionate nature, combined with their intelligence and independence, makes them a unique and enjoyable breed to have as part of the family.





Intelligent and eager to please, Samoyeds can be trained effectively. They respond best to positive reinforcement techniques such as treats and praise. However, they have an independent streak, which requires patience and consistency in training. Early socialization and obedience training are recommended.

Exercise Requirements and Energy Level

Samoyeds are active dogs with a high energy level, reflecting their working heritage. They require regular exercise to stay fit and happy. Daily walks, play sessions, and opportunities to run are important for their physical and mental well-being.

Grooming Requirements of the Samoyed

The Samoyed is renowned for its stunning, fluffy white coat, which requires consistent and thorough grooming to maintain its health and appearance. Here’s a comprehensive look at the grooming needs of a Samoyed:

Regular Brushing

  • Frequency: Samoyeds need to be brushed several times a week, and daily brushing is ideal during shedding seasons.
  • Tools: A slicker brush, a long-toothed comb, and an undercoat rake are essential for effectively grooming a Samoyed’s coat.
  • Technique: Proper brushing not only removes loose fur and dirt but also helps distribute natural oils throughout the coat, keeping it healthy and shiny.


  • Frequency: Samoyeds don’t require frequent baths, but a bath every 2-3 months, or as needed, is recommended to keep their coat clean.
  • Process: It’s essential to use a high-quality dog shampoo and conditioner, and to ensure the coat is completely rinsed to prevent irritation.


  • Method: After bathing, a Samoyed’s coat should be dried thoroughly to prevent any dampness from causing skin issues. A blow dryer on a cool or low-heat setting can be used to expedite the drying process.
  • Attention to Detail: Pay particular attention to drying the dense undercoat, as any residual moisture can lead to hot spots or other skin problems.

Shedding Management

  • Samoyeds are heavy shedders, especially during the spring and fall. Regular and thorough grooming during these periods is crucial to manage the shedding.
  • The “blow out” of their undercoat can be quite intense, and during these times, more frequent grooming sessions may be necessary.

Ear Care

  • Regular checks and cleaning of the ears are important, as the breed can be prone to wax buildup and infections.

Nail Trimming

  • Samoyeds’ nails should be trimmed regularly to prevent discomfort and potential health problems related to overgrown nails.

Dental Hygiene

  • Regular teeth brushing or use of dental chews helps prevent tartar buildup and gum disease.

Eye Care

Professional Grooming

  • Some owners opt for professional grooming services every few months to ensure their Samoyed’s coat is well-maintained, especially for those who show their dogs or prefer specific grooming styles.

Special Considerations

  • Because Samoyeds have a double coat, it’s crucial not to shave them unless medically necessary. Shaving can damage their coat and affect their natural insulation and temperature regulation.

In summary, grooming a Samoyed is a significant commitment, but it’s essential for their health and comfort. Regular grooming not only keeps them looking beautiful but also provides an opportunity to bond with your dog and check for any health concerns. A well-groomed Samoyed is a happy and healthy companion.




Health Issues of the Samoyed

While Samoyeds are generally known for their robust health, they are prone to certain genetic and breed-specific health issues. Being aware of these can help owners take preventative measures and seek timely veterinary care.

Hip Dysplasia

  • Description: Hip dysplasia is a common condition in larger breeds, including Samoyeds, where the hip joint develops abnormally, leading to arthritis and pain.
  • Management: Regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and veterinary monitoring can help manage this condition. In severe cases, surgery might be required.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

  • Description: PRA is an eye disorder that gradually causes blindness due to the loss of photoreceptors at the back of the eye.
  • Prevention: Regular eye exams can help detect PRA early, though there’s no cure. Breeders should have their dogs’ eyes certified before breeding.

Bloat (Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus)

  • Description: Samoyeds can be susceptible to bloat, a life-threatening condition where the stomach fills with gas and sometimes twists.
  • Prevention: Feeding smaller, more frequent meals and avoiding exercise right after eating can help prevent bloat.

Samoyed Hereditary Ghlomerulopathy

  • Description: This is a genetic kidney disease that primarily affects male Samoyeds, leading to renal failure.
  • Management: There’s no cure, but early detection and veterinary care can help manage the disease and improve quality of life.


  • Description: Hypothyroidism, due to inadequate production of thyroid hormones, is seen in Samoyeds, leading to symptoms like weight gain, lethargy, and coat problems.
  • Treatment: It’s treatable with medication and regular thyroid monitoring.

Diabetes Mellitus

  • Description: Samoyeds are more prone to diabetes than some other breeds, requiring lifelong management with insulin and diet.
  • Management: Regular veterinary check-ups, proper diet, and exercise are crucial for managing diabetes.

Skin Problems

  • Description: They can have skin allergies that may lead to dermatitis if not properly managed.
  • Prevention and Treatment: Regular grooming, a good diet, and avoiding allergens can help reduce skin problems.

Regular Health Screenings and Care

  • It’s essential for Samoyed owners to schedule regular health screenings with a veterinarian, especially for hips, eyes, and thyroid function.
  • A healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and regular exercise, is vital for preventing obesity and its associated health risks.

Notable Considerations for Prospective Owners

  • Prospective Samoyed owners should work with reputable breeders who test their breeding dogs for these genetic conditions.
  • Understanding these health risks and the importance of preventive care is crucial for anyone considering adding a Samoyed to their family.

In summary, while Samoyeds are generally hardy and long-lived dogs, awareness of potential health issues is key to ensuring they lead a healthy, happy life. Regular veterinary care, a healthy lifestyle, and responsible breeding practices are essential in managing these health risks.

Notable Dogs From the Breed

A famous Samoyed named Etah was the lead sled dog for Roald Amundsen’s expedition, the first to reach the South Pole. Samoyeds have also been popular among royalty, with Queen Alexandra, wife of King Edward VII, known to have kept them.

Comparable Breeds

Comparable breeds include other members of the Spitz family like the Alaskan Malamute and Siberian Husky, known for their endurance and ability to thrive in cold climates, and the American Eskimo Dog, which shares the Samoyed’s playful and affectionate nature.

General Summary of the Breed

The Samoyed combines beauty, functionality, and a friendly demeanor. They are adaptable and can thrive in various environments as long as they are given enough exercise and companionship. Their history as working dogs in harsh climates speaks to their resilience and strength, while their reputation as affectionate family pets shows their softer side. A well-cared-for Samoyed is a joyful, loyal, and active companion, sure to bring a smile to anyone’s face.

Samoyeds are a member of the Spitz family, distinguished by their fluffy white coats, curled tails, and perky ears. They are medium to large dogs known for their ability to endure cold climates, a trait inherited from their history as working dogs in Siberia.

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