Rat Terrier

Rat terrier

If you’re looking for a small and energetic companion, then the Rat Terrier might be the perfect breed for you. In this article, we will explore the history and origins of the breed, their size and appearance characteristics, life expectancy, temperament, trainability and adaptability, exercise requirements and energy level, grooming needs, health issues, comparable breeds, and even some notable dogs from this wonderful breed. So, whether you’re considering getting a Rat Terrier or simply curious about these lively little dogs, keep reading to discover everything you need to know about the Rat Terrier breed.


History and Origins of the Breed

The Rat Terrier breed has a rich and fascinating history that dates back to the early 19th century. This breed was developed in the United States, primarily in the rural areas of the Midwest and the South.


The Rat Terrier’s origins can be traced back to a mixture of breeds, including the Smooth Fox Terrier, the Manchester Terrier, the Bull Terrier, and the Whippet. These breeds were crossed to create a versatile and efficient farm dog that excelled in hunting small game and eliminating rats and other vermin.


The Rat Terrier was initially bred for its hunting and pest control abilities. Farmers and homesteaders relied on these dogs to keep their properties free from rodents, which posed a threat to crops and livestock. The Rat Terrier’s small size and agility made it the perfect candidate for this task.


During the early 20th century, Rat Terriers gained popularity in the United States, particularly among farmers and working-class families. These dogs were highly valued for their exceptional hunting skills, loyalty, and versatility. They were often seen as indispensable companions and guardians of the homestead.


In 2013, the Rat Terrier was officially recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC) as a member of the Terrier Group. This recognition solidified the breed’s status and increased its visibility and popularity among dog enthusiasts and owners.

Rat Terriers Today

Today, Rat Terriers are not only cherished for their hunting abilities but also for their loving and affectionate nature, making them excellent family pets. They continue to be highly regarded as versatile working dogs, excelling in various dog sports and activities such as agility, obedience, and even therapy work.

The history and origins of the Rat Terrier breed provide valuable insights into its purpose-driven development and the traits that make it such a unique and beloved breed today. Understanding the breed’s origins helps us appreciate its heritage and the characteristics that make it such a remarkable companion and working dog.


Size and Appearance Characteristics

The Rat Terrier is a small to medium-sized breed known for its compact and muscular build. Let’s delve into the size and appearance characteristics of this delightful breed.


On average, adult male Rat Terriers stand between 14 to 17 inches (35 to 43 cm) tall at the shoulder, while females typically measure slightly smaller, ranging from 13 to 16 inches (33 to 41 cm). These measurements are based on the breed standards set by kennel clubs such as the American Kennel Club (AKC).


In terms of weight, adult Rat Terriers generally weigh between 10 to 25 pounds (4.5 to 11 kg), with males usually being slightly heavier than females.

Body Structure

The Rat Terrier has a well-proportioned body with a strong and agile build. They exhibit a rectangular body shape, with a deep chest and a level topline. Their hindquarters are muscular, allowing for quick bursts of speed and agility.

Head and Facial Features

The Rat Terrier has a distinct head shape, often described as a wedge shape with a well-defined stop. They have medium-sized, almond-shaped eyes that are typically dark in color. Their ears are set high on the head and can be either erect or buttoned, adding to their alert and attentive expression.

Coat and Colors

Rat Terriers have a short and smooth coat that lies close to their body, providing protection and insulation. The coat is dense and requires minimal grooming. This breed comes in a variety of colors and patterns, including black, white, tan, chocolate, blue, red, brindle, and tricolor. Some Rat Terriers may also have ticking or spotting on their coat.


The Rat Terrier’s tail is typically docked to a medium length. In countries where docking is prohibited, the natural tail is left intact, which is straight and tapers to a point.

Overall Appearance

In summary, the Rat Terrier’s size and appearance depict a well-balanced and compact dog with a sturdy build. Its distinct head shape, expressive eyes, and variety of coat colors contribute to its charming and appealing appearance. Whether in the show ring or as a beloved companion, the Rat Terrier’s physical attributes make it an eye-catching and delightful breed.

Life Expectancy

The life expectancy of a Rat Terrier can vary depending on several factors, including genetics, overall health, and the quality of care provided. On average, Rat Terriers have a lifespan of 12 to 18 years. However, it is not uncommon for some individuals to live even longer with proper care and a healthy lifestyle.

Factors Affecting Life Expectancy

  1. Genetics: Like any breed, genetics play a significant role in determining a Rat Terrier’s lifespan. Responsible breeders strive to produce puppies from healthy parents with no known hereditary conditions, which can increase the chances of a longer lifespan.
  2. Health Care: Regular veterinary check-ups, vaccinations, and preventive measures such as parasite control and dental care are essential for maintaining a Rat Terrier’s overall health. Prompt treatment of any health issues or ailments can also contribute to a longer life.
  3. Diet and Nutrition: Providing a well-balanced and nutritious diet is crucial for supporting a Rat Terrier’s overall health and longevity. Feeding high-quality dog food that meets their specific nutritional needs, along with appropriate portion control, is vital.
  4. Exercise and Mental Stimulation: Keeping a Rat Terrier physically and mentally stimulated is essential for their overall well-being. Regular exercise helps maintain a healthy weight, strengthens muscles, and promotes cardiovascular health. Mental stimulation, such as interactive toys and training activities, helps prevent boredom and keeps their minds sharp.
  5. Spaying/Neutering: Sterilization is a personal choice for pet owners, but it is worth noting that spaying or neutering a Rat Terrier can have health benefits and potentially increase their lifespan. Spaying females eliminates the risk of uterine infections and reduces the chances of mammary tumors, while neutering males can decrease the risk of testicular cancer and certain behavioral issues.

Longevity and Quality of Life

Rat Terriers are generally considered a long-lived breed compared to many other dog breeds. With proper care, a Rat Terrier can enjoy a healthy and active life well into their late teens. It is important to note that individual dogs may have different health concerns or genetic predispositions that can impact their lifespan.

By providing a loving home, regular veterinary care, a nutritious diet, ample exercise, and mental stimulation, you can help ensure that your Rat Terrier has the best chance at a long and fulfilling life. Remember, each Rat Terrier is unique, and their lifespan can be influenced by various factors, so it’s essential to provide individualized care and attention to meet their specific needs.


Rat terrier



The Rat Terrier is known for its lively and spirited temperament. This breed possesses a unique combination of traits that make it an excellent companion and family pet. Let’s explore the temperament of the Rat Terrier in more detail.

Energetic and Active

Rat Terriers are highly energetic and require plenty of physical exercise and mental stimulation to keep them happy and balanced. They have a natural inclination for activities like running, playing fetch, and exploring their surroundings. Regular exercise not only helps burn off excess energy but also promotes a healthier and more contented Rat Terrier.

Intelligent and Alert

Intelligence is a notable characteristic of the Rat Terrier. They are quick learners and thrive when given mental challenges. Their alertness and keen senses make them excellent watchdogs, as they are always aware of their surroundings and ready to alert their owners to any potential threats.

Affectionate and Loyal

Rat Terriers are known for their affectionate nature and strong bond with their families. They thrive on human companionship and enjoy being part of the household activities. This breed often forms strong attachments to their owners and will eagerly seek out affection and attention.

Good with Children and Other Pets

When properly socialized, Rat Terriers can get along well with children and other pets. They are generally tolerant and patient, making them suitable companions for families. However, it is important to teach children how to interact with dogs and supervise their interactions to ensure everyone’s safety.

Independent Thinkers

While Rat Terriers are intelligent, they can also be independent thinkers. This independent streak can sometimes manifest as stubbornness, especially if they are not properly trained or provided with consistent boundaries. Positive reinforcement training methods and early socialization can help channel their intelligence and independence into positive behaviors.

Prey Drive and Hunting Instincts

As a breed developed for hunting, Rat Terriers have a strong prey drive and may exhibit chasing behaviors towards small animals. It is important to supervise them around smaller pets, such as rabbits or guinea pigs, and ensure a secure environment to prevent any accidental harm.


Rat Terriers are generally adaptable and can thrive in various living situations, including apartments and houses with yards. However, their high energy levels mean that they require sufficient exercise and mental stimulation, regardless of the living arrangements.

Understanding the temperament of the Rat Terrier is crucial for potential owners to ensure a harmonious and fulfilling relationship. Their energy, intelligence, affection, and independence make them a wonderful choice for active individuals or families who can provide the necessary mental and physical stimulation that this breed craves.


Trainability and Adaptability

The Rat Terrier is a highly trainable and adaptable breed, known for its intelligence and willingness to please. Let’s explore their trainability and adaptability in more detail.

Intelligence and Learning Ability

Rat Terriers are intelligent dogs that quickly grasp new concepts and commands. They have a natural eagerness to learn and excel in obedience training. With positive reinforcement techniques, such as rewards and praise, along with consistent and patient training methods, Rat Terriers can become well-behaved and obedient companions.


Early socialization is essential for Rat Terriers to develop good manners and positive interactions with people and other animals. Exposing them to various environments, sounds, people, and animals from a young age helps them to grow into well-rounded and confident individuals. It is important to introduce them to different situations gradually and in a positive manner to prevent any fear or anxiety.

Basic Commands and Obedience Training

Rat Terriers excel in basic obedience training. They are eager to please their owners and enjoy the mental stimulation that training provides. Teaching them basic commands such as sit, stay, come, and heel is essential for their safety and well-being. Consistency, positive reinforcement, and short, frequent training sessions work best with this breed.

Crate Training

Crate training can be a valuable tool for housebreaking and providing a safe space for a Rat Terrier. When introduced properly, crates can become a comfortable and secure den for them. It is important to make the crate a positive experience, never using it as a form of punishment, and gradually increasing the time they spend inside to avoid any anxiety or stress.

Adaptability to Living Environments

Rat Terriers are generally adaptable to different living environments, including apartments, suburban homes, and rural settings. However, it is important to note that their high energy levels require regular exercise and mental stimulation. Providing them with ample opportunities for physical activity and mental challenges, such as interactive toys and puzzle games, is crucial to prevent boredom and destructive behaviors.

Advanced Training and Activities

Beyond basic obedience training, Rat Terriers can excel in various dog sports and activities. Their intelligence and agility make them well-suited for activities such as agility, flyball, and obedience trials. These activities not only provide mental stimulation but also strengthen the bond between the owner and the dog.

Training Challenges

While Rat Terriers are generally trainable, they can also be independent thinkers and may exhibit stubbornness at times. Consistency, positive reinforcement, and patience are key when training this breed. It is important to establish clear rules and boundaries from the beginning to prevent any behavioral issues.

With their intelligence, willingness to please, and adaptability, Rat Terriers are highly trainable dogs. Whether for basic obedience or more advanced activities, investing time and effort in training can result in a well-behaved and well-rounded companion.


Rat terrier


Exercise Requirements and Energy Level

The Rat Terrier is a breed known for its high energy levels and need for regular exercise. Providing them with sufficient physical activity is crucial to their overall health and well-being. Let’s explore the exercise requirements and energy level of the Rat Terrier in more detail.

Energy Level

Rat Terriers possess a naturally high energy level. They are lively and enthusiastic dogs that thrive on activity and mental stimulation. This breed is not suitable for those seeking a sedentary lifestyle or minimal exercise commitment. Rat Terriers require regular exercise to burn off energy and prevent behavioral issues that may arise from pent-up energy.

Daily Exercise Needs

On average, Rat Terriers should engage in at least 30 minutes to an hour of exercise each day. This can be a combination of physical activities such as walks, runs, or playtime in a securely fenced yard. It is important to note that individual Rat Terriers may have varying exercise requirements based on their age, health, and energy levels.

Mental Stimulation

In addition to physical exercise, Rat Terriers also require mental stimulation. These intelligent dogs thrive when given tasks and puzzles to solve. Engaging them in interactive toys, obedience training, or participating in dog sports and activities can help fulfill their mental stimulation needs.

Outdoor Exploration

Rat Terriers have a natural curiosity and love for exploring their environment. They enjoy sniffing and investigating their surroundings, so providing opportunities for them to explore safely, such as on-leash walks or supervised outdoor playtime, can help satisfy their instinctual needs.

Social Interaction

Rat Terriers benefit from social interaction with other dogs and humans. Regular playdates with well-mannered dogs or visits to a dog park can provide both physical exercise and socialization opportunities. It is important to monitor their interactions with other dogs and ensure they are in a safe and controlled environment.

Weather Considerations

Rat Terriers are generally adaptable to various weather conditions, but precautions should be taken in extreme temperatures. During hot weather, it is crucial to exercise them during cooler parts of the day, provide plenty of shade and fresh water, and avoid overheating. In cold weather, they may require additional layers or shorter outdoor sessions to prevent discomfort.

Exercise Varieties

To prevent boredom, it is essential to vary the types of exercise and activities for a Rat Terrier. This can include walks, runs, hikes, agility, obedience training, puzzle toys, and interactive play sessions. This variety keeps them mentally engaged and physically challenged.

Understanding and meeting the exercise requirements of a Rat Terrier is essential for their overall well-being. Regular exercise not only helps maintain a healthy weight but also fulfills their physical and mental needs, reducing the likelihood of behavioral issues that may arise from boredom or excess energy. By providing them with ample exercise and mental stimulation, you can help ensure a happy, healthy, and well-balanced Rat Terrier.


Grooming Requirements

The Rat Terrier has a short and smooth coat that is relatively low-maintenance. However, regular grooming is still necessary to keep their coat and skin healthy. Let’s explore the grooming requirements for the Rat Terrier breed.

Coat Care

The Rat Terrier’s short coat requires minimal grooming compared to breeds with longer or more profuse hair. A weekly brushing with a soft-bristle brush or grooming glove is usually sufficient to remove loose hair and keep their coat looking neat. This helps to distribute natural oils and maintain a healthy shine.


Rat Terriers are generally clean dogs and do not require frequent bathing unless they get particularly dirty or have a strong odor. Bathing should be done with a mild dog shampoo that is specifically formulated for their sensitive skin. Over-bathing should be avoided as it can strip the coat of its natural oils, leading to dryness and irritation.

Ear Care

Regular ear cleaning is important for the Rat Terrier breed, as they can be prone to ear infections due to their drop or semi-prick ears. Weekly ear inspections and gentle cleaning with a veterinarian-recommended ear cleanser can help prevent the buildup of wax and debris. It is important to avoid inserting anything deep into the ear canal to prevent injury.

Nail Trimming

Routine nail trimming is necessary to keep your Rat Terrier’s nails at a comfortable and manageable length. Long nails can cause discomfort and may even lead to joint and posture issues. Regular inspection and trimming every couple of weeks, or as needed, using a dog-specific nail clipper or grinder, is recommended.

Dental Care

Dental hygiene is important for the overall health of your Rat Terrier. Regular brushing with a dog-specific toothbrush and toothpaste is the gold standard for maintaining healthy teeth and gums. Additionally, providing dental chews, toys, and regular veterinary dental check-ups can help prevent periodontal disease and maintain fresh breath.

Anal Gland Expression

Some Rat Terriers may require occasional anal gland expression. The anal glands are located on either side of the anus and can occasionally become impacted or infected, causing discomfort. If your Rat Terrier scoots or shows signs of discomfort in the anal area, it is advisable to consult a veterinarian for proper evaluation and expression if necessary.

Overall Health and Grooming

Regular grooming sessions not only keep your Rat Terrier looking their best but also provide an opportunity to check for any signs of skin issues, lumps, or other abnormalities. It is important to maintain a good grooming routine and seek veterinary attention if you notice any changes in your Rat Terrier’s coat or skin.

By following a regular grooming routine and providing proper care, you can keep your Rat Terrier’s coat healthy and their overall appearance well-maintained. Grooming sessions also provide an opportunity for bonding and ensure that your Rat Terrier remains comfortable and happy in their skin.


Rat terrier


Health Issues

Like all dog breeds, Rat Terriers are susceptible to certain health issues. While not all Rat Terriers will experience these conditions, it is important to be aware of potential health concerns and take appropriate measures to ensure their well-being. Let’s explore some common health issues that can affect Rat Terriers.

Patellar Luxation

Patellar luxation is a condition where the kneecap (patella) moves out of its normal position, causing discomfort or lameness. It can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention, such as surgery, depending on the severity.

Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is a developmental condition where the hip joint does not form properly, leading to joint instability and potential arthritis. Regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and proper breeding practices can help reduce the risk of hip dysplasia.

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is a condition that affects the hip joint, leading to reduced blood supply and subsequent degeneration of the femoral head. This can result in pain and lameness. Treatment options may include surgery or conservative management, depending on the severity.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

Progressive retinal atrophy is an inherited eye condition that causes progressive degeneration of the retina, leading to vision loss and, eventually, blindness. Regular eye examinations by a veterinary ophthalmologist can help detect PRA early on.


Some Rat Terriers may be prone to congenital deafness, which is present from birth. It is important to be aware of this potential issue and take appropriate measures in training and communication with a deaf Rat Terrier.

Cardiac Issues

Heart conditions, such as mitral valve disease and congenital heart defects, can occur in Rat Terriers. Regular veterinary check-ups, including cardiac evaluations, can help detect and manage these conditions.


Rat Terriers may be prone to allergies, including food allergies and environmental allergies. Identifying and avoiding allergens, as well as working with a veterinarian to manage symptoms, can help keep your Rat Terrier comfortable.

Dental Disease

Dental disease, including periodontal disease and tooth decay, can affect Rat Terriers. Regular dental care, including tooth brushing and professional cleanings, is important for maintaining good oral health.

Regular Veterinary Care

To ensure the overall health and well-being of your Rat Terrier, regular veterinary check-ups are essential. Routine vaccinations, preventive medications (such as flea and tick control), and screenings for common health issues are important aspects of responsible pet ownership.

While these health issues may be a concern, it is important to note that not all Rat Terriers will be affected by them. Responsible breeding practices, regular veterinary care, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help minimize the risk of these conditions and promote a long and healthy life for your Rat Terrier.


Comparable Breeds

If you are considering adding a Rat Terrier to your family, you may also be interested in exploring other breeds that possess similar characteristics and traits. Here are some comparable breeds to consider:

Jack Russell Terrier

The Jack Russell Terrier shares many similarities with the Rat Terrier. Both breeds are small in size and known for their high energy levels, intelligence, and affectionate nature. They excel in activities such as agility and obedience and require regular exercise and mental stimulation.

Miniature Pinscher

The Miniature Pinscher, also known as the “Min Pin,” is a small breed that shares the Rat Terrier’s alertness, energy, and spirited personality. Like Rat Terriers, Min Pins are known for their loyalty and make excellent watchdogs. They require regular exercise and mental stimulation to prevent behavioral issues.


The Beagle is a friendly and outgoing breed that shares the Rat Terrier’s love for adventure and exploration. Beagles are known for their keen sense of smell and are often used as scent hounds. They are sociable dogs that get along well with other pets and children. Beagles require regular exercise and mental stimulation to prevent boredom.

Boston Terrier

The Boston Terrier is a small breed known for its friendly and affectionate nature. Like Rat Terriers, Boston Terriers are intelligent and trainable. They are excellent family dogs and generally get along well with children and other pets. Boston Terriers have a moderate energy level and are adaptable to various living environments.

Cairn Terrier

The Cairn Terrier is a small and sturdy breed that shares the Rat Terrier’s intelligence, independence, and tenacity. They are known for their playful and adventurous nature and make great companions for active individuals or families. Cairn Terriers require regular exercise and mental stimulation to prevent boredom and destructive behaviors.

Border Terrier

The Border Terrier is a small, energetic breed that shares the Rat Terrier’s intelligence, agility, and loyalty. They are known for their affectionate nature and get along well with children and other pets. Border Terriers excel in various dog sports and activities and require regular exercise and mental stimulation.

When considering a Rat Terrier or any other breed, it is important to thoroughly research and understand the specific needs and characteristics of the breed. Each breed has its own unique traits, and finding the right match for your lifestyle and preferences is crucial for a successful and fulfilling companionship.


Notable Dogs from This Breed

The Rat Terrier breed has produced many notable dogs throughout history. These dogs have made significant contributions in various fields, showcasing the breed’s versatility and capabilities. Let’s explore some of the notable Rat Terriers:

Teddy Roosevelt’s Rat Terriers

The Rat Terrier breed owes much of its popularity and recognition to President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt. He was an avid dog lover and owned several Rat Terriers during his time in the White House. He used them for hunting expeditions, and his admiration for the breed helped bring attention to their abilities and qualities.


Hector was a Rat Terrier who gained fame for his exceptional hunting skills. He was known for his remarkable ability to track and capture rats and other vermin, exhibiting the breed’s natural instincts and hunting prowess. Hector’s achievements helped solidify the Rat Terrier’s reputation as a skilled hunting and pest control dog.


Ratitatt was a Rat Terrier who achieved great success in the world of dog sports. She excelled in various disciplines, including agility, obedience, and flyball. Ratitatt’s accomplishments showcased the breed’s intelligence, athleticism, and versatility, earning her recognition as a top-performing Rat Terrier in competitive events.

Therapy and Service Dogs

Rat Terriers have also made their mark as therapy and service dogs. Their affectionate and friendly nature, combined with their intelligence and adaptability, make them well-suited for these roles. Rat Terriers have provided comfort and support to individuals in hospitals, nursing homes, and other therapeutic settings, bringing joy and companionship to those in need.


Decker, a Rat Terrier from the early 20th century, played a significant role in preserving and promoting the breed. His bloodline became the foundation for the Decker Rat Terrier, a larger variant of the breed. Decker Rat Terriers continue to be recognized as a separate lineage within the Rat Terrier breed and have their own dedicated following.

These notable Rat Terriers have demonstrated the breed’s remarkable abilities, versatility, and impact in various fields. From hunting and sports to therapy and service work, Rat Terriers have proven to be exceptional companions and contributors to society.

As the Rat Terrier breed continues to evolve and thrive, it is worth celebrating the achievements and contributions of these notable dogs, who have left a lasting legacy and helped shape the breed’s reputation and recognition.

The Rat Terrier breed has a rich and fascinating history that dates back to the early 19th century. This breed was developed in the United States, primarily in the rural areas of the Midwest and the South.

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