collie dog breed

Welcome to our deep dive into the Collie, a beloved and iconic breed known for its intelligence, loyalty, and striking appearance. Whether you are a long-time Collie enthusiast or new to the breed, this article will provide you with a comprehensive overview of everything you need to know about these magnificent dogs.

We will delve into the history and origins of the Collie, tracing its roots back to its herding days in Scotland. We will explore the size and appearance characteristics that make the Collie such a recognizable breed, from their elegant and regal stance to their beautiful coat.

One of the most important factors to consider when choosing a dog is their life expectancy, and we will discuss the average lifespan of the Collie in this post. Additionally, we’ll explore the temperament of the breed, highlighting their gentle and friendly nature, which makes them excellent family pets.

Trainability and adaptability are key traits that many dog owners seek, and we will dive into how the Collie excels in these areas. From their eager-to-please attitude to their quick learning abilities, Collies are known for their intelligence and responsiveness to training.

To ensure the well-being of any dog, it’s crucial to understand their exercise requirements and energy levels. We will discuss how much exercise a Collie needs and provide tips on keeping them mentally and physically stimulated.

Grooming is another important consideration for potential Collie owners, as their luxurious double coat requires regular maintenance. We will provide insights on how to properly care for their coat, including brushing, bathing, and managing shedding.

Like any breed, Collies can be prone to certain health issues, and we will outline some of the common ailments to be aware of. We will also touch on comparable breeds that share similar characteristics and may be of interest to those considering a Collie.

Lastly, we will celebrate the many notable dogs from the Collie breed, highlighting their achievements in various fields, from film and television to search and rescue.

Whether you are contemplating adding a Collie to your family or are simply curious about this amazing breed, this guide will serve as your go-to resource for all things Collie. So, let’s dive in and explore the wonderful world of Collies together!


History and Origins of the Breed

The Collie has a rich history that dates back centuries, originating in the border region of Scotland and England. This section will delve into the fascinating history and origins of the breed, shedding light on how the Collie has evolved over time.

Early Origins

The exact origins of the Collie are somewhat unclear, as the breed’s history predates written records. However, it is believed that the Collie’s ancestors were brought to the British Isles by Roman conquerors, who used these dogs for herding livestock.

Shepherd’s Companion

The Collie’s true rise to prominence began in Scotland, where they were primarily used as herding dogs. They were highly valued by shepherds for their exceptional herding instincts, intelligence, and ability to work tirelessly in harsh conditions.

Influences from Other Breeds

During the 19th century, significant efforts were made to refine and standardize the breed. It is believed that the Collie’s bloodline was influenced by other herding breeds like the Border Collie and the Scotch Collie, which contributed to the breed’s overall appearance and working abilities.

Queen Victoria’s Influence

The Collie gained further recognition and popularity during the reign of Queen Victoria in the 19th century. Queen Victoria was an avid dog lover and had a particular fondness for the breed. Her love for Collies helped elevate their status and contributed to their widespread recognition as a breed.

Introduction to America

The Collie was introduced to America in the late 19th century, where it quickly gained popularity as a versatile working dog. It also caught the attention of dog enthusiasts and breeders, leading to the establishment of breed clubs and the development of breed standards.

Evolution as a Show Dog

As the breed gained popularity, Collies began to be bred for their appearance and showmanship rather than solely for working abilities. This shift in focus led to the development of different varieties within the breed, such as the Rough Collie and the Smooth Collie, both of which gained recognition and popularity in the show ring.

Modern Collies

Today, the Collie continues to be cherished as both a working dog and a beloved companion. While their herding instincts are still appreciated, many Collies now excel in various dog sports, obedience trials, and therapy work. The breed’s intelligence, loyalty, and striking appearance have made them a favorite among dog lovers worldwide.

Understanding the history and origins of the Collie provides valuable insights into the breed’s characteristics, traits, and purpose. It is a testament to their enduring legacy as a breed that has captivated the hearts of dog enthusiasts for centuries.


collie dog breed


Size and Appearance Characteristics

When it comes to size and appearance, the Collie is an elegant and distinguished breed. This section will explore the various characteristics that define the Collie’s physical appearance, including their size, build, and distinctive features.

Size Range

Collies are considered a medium to large-sized breed. The American Kennel Club (AKC) recognizes two varieties of Collies: the Rough Collie and the Smooth Collie. The Rough Collie is typically larger than the Smooth Collie, with males standing between 24 to 26 inches (61 to 66 cm) at the shoulder and females ranging from 22 to 24 inches (56 to 61 cm). Smooth Collies are slightly smaller, with males standing at 22 to 24 inches (56 to 61 cm) and females ranging from 20 to 22 inches (51 to 56 cm).

Weight Range

In terms of weight, male Collies typically weigh between 60 to 75 pounds (27 to 34 kg), while females weigh slightly less, ranging from 50 to 65 pounds (23 to 29 kg). It’s important to note that individual Collies may vary in size and weight depending on genetics, diet, and overall health.

Build and Structure

Collies have a strong and well-balanced build. They have a muscular body with a deep chest and a level topline. The breed has a graceful and flowing gait, which adds to their overall elegance. Their front legs are straight and strong, while their hindquarters are muscular and well-developed.

Head and Expression

One of the most striking features of the Collie is their head. They have a well-sculpted, wedge-shaped head with a distinct stop. Their eyes are almond-shaped and come in various shades of brown, depending on the coat color. Collies are known for their intelligent and alert expression, which is accentuated by their medium-sized, mobile ears that stand erect.

Coat Types and Colors

The Collie is famous for its luxurious double coat, which provides protection in various weather conditions. The Rough Collie has a long, dense, and abundant outer coat, while the Smooth Collie has a short and dense coat. Both varieties have a soft undercoat that helps insulate them.

Collies come in a range of colors, including sable and white, tricolor (black, tan, and white), blue merle (gray and black marbled with white), and white. The sable and white coat is the most common and iconic color combination associated with the breed.

Overall Appearance

In summary, the Collie is a breed that exudes grace, elegance, and strength. Their medium to large size, well-balanced build, and distinctive features like their wedge-shaped head and luxurious coat make them easily recognizable and admired. Whether it’s their noble expression or their flowing gait, the Collie’s appearance is truly captivating.


Life Expectancy

The life expectancy of a Collie is an important consideration for anyone considering adding this breed to their family. This section will provide an overview of the average lifespan of Collies, as well as factors that can influence their longevity.

Average Lifespan

On average, Collies have a lifespan of 10 to 14 years. However, it’s important to note that individual Collies may have shorter or longer lifespans depending on various factors such as genetics, overall health care, diet, exercise, and living conditions.

Factors Influencing Longevity

Several factors can impact the lifespan of Collies, and being aware of these factors can help owners make informed decisions to promote their dog’s health and well-being:


Genetic factors play a significant role in determining the lifespan of a Collie. Responsible breeders strive to produce healthy puppies by selecting breeding pairs with good genetic backgrounds and screening for hereditary health conditions.

Health Care:

Proper health care, regular veterinary check-ups, vaccinations, and preventive measures such as parasite control are essential for maintaining a Collie’s well-being and potentially extending their lifespan.


A balanced and nutritious diet is crucial for the overall health and longevity of Collies. Providing them with high-quality dog food that meets their nutritional needs, along with appropriate portion sizes, can contribute to their overall well-being.

Exercise and Mental Stimulation:

Regular exercise is vital for Collies to maintain a healthy weight, muscle tone, and mental well-being. Engaging them in physical activities, such as daily walks or playtime, and providing mental stimulation through training and interactive toys can help promote a longer and healthier life.

Preventive Measures:

Taking preventive measures such as spaying or neutering your Collie, maintaining good oral hygiene, and ensuring they are up to date on vaccinations can help prevent certain health issues and potentially extend their lifespan.

Common Health Issues

While Collies are generally a healthy breed, like any dog, they can be prone to certain health conditions. It’s important to be aware of these potential issues and take appropriate measures to manage or prevent them. Some common health issues that may affect Collies include:


Regular veterinary check-ups and health screenings can help detect and manage these conditions early on, potentially extending the lifespan of your Collie.

Understanding the average lifespan of a Collie and the factors that influence it allows owners to make informed decisions to promote their dog’s health and well-being. By providing proper care, nutrition, exercise, and preventive measures, you can help ensure that your Collie enjoys a long and fulfilling life by your side.


collie dog breed



The Collie is renowned for its gentle and friendly temperament, making it a beloved choice for families and individuals alike. This section will delve into the temperament characteristics of the Collie, highlighting their personality traits, behavior with children and other pets, as well as their overall demeanor.

Gentle and Affectionate

Collies are known for their gentle and affectionate nature. They form strong bonds with their family members and are often loyal and devoted companions. Collies thrive on human companionship and enjoy being part of the family activities.

Good with Children

Collies are typically excellent with children, making them an ideal choice for families. Their patient and protective nature often makes them great playmates and guardians for kids. However, as with any breed, supervision and teaching children how to properly interact with dogs are essential for a harmonious relationship.

Sociable and Friendly

Collies are generally sociable and friendly dogs. They tend to be welcoming towards strangers and can make good companions for visitors or new acquaintances. Their friendly nature makes them a poor choice for a guard or watchdog, as they are more likely to greet strangers with a wagging tail rather than suspicion.

Compatibility with Other Pets

Collies can coexist well with other pets when properly introduced and socialized from a young age. Their herding instincts may lead them to try to control the movements of smaller pets, but with training and supervision, they can learn to live harmoniously with other animals in the household.

Alert and Protective

While Collies are not typically aggressive, they have an inherent alertness and protective instinct. They will often bark to alert their family to potential threats or unusual situations. This makes them excellent watch dogs, as they are quick to raise the alarm if they sense something amiss.

Sensitivity to their Environment

Collies are known for their sensitivity to their environment and the emotions of their owners. They can be highly attuned to the moods of those around them and may offer comfort or support when their human companions are feeling down. This sensitivity can make them excellent therapy dogs or emotional support animals.

Temperament Training

Like all dogs, Collies benefit from early socialization and obedience training. Proper training can help channel their intelligence and instincts in positive ways. Training should focus on positive reinforcement techniques, as Collies are sensitive to harsh or negative training methods.

In summary, the Collie’s temperament is characterized by its gentle, friendly, and sociable nature. They are well-suited for families, enjoy the company of children, and can coexist with other pets when properly introduced. Their loyalty, protectiveness, and sensitivity to their environment make them wonderful companions for individuals seeking a devoted and loving canine friend.


Trainability and Adaptability

Collies are highly trainable and adaptable dogs, known for their intelligence and eagerness to please. This section will explore the trainability and adaptability of Collies, including their ability to learn and perform various tasks, as well as their adaptability to different living environments.

Intelligence and Learning Abilities

Collies are considered one of the most intelligent dog breeds. Their high level of intelligence, combined with their natural instincts and desire to please their owners, makes them highly trainable. They are quick learners and are often able to pick up commands and new skills with ease.

Obedience Training

Collies excel in obedience training and are often successful in obedience trials and competitions. They are responsive to positive reinforcement training methods, such as rewards, praise, and treats. Consistency, patience, and clear communication are key when training a Collie, as they are sensitive dogs who thrive in a positive training environment.

Herding Instincts

Collies have a strong herding instinct ingrained in their genetic makeup. While many Collies may not have the opportunity to work as herding dogs, their herding instincts can still be observed in their behavior. They may exhibit tendencies to chase and control movement, especially around children or other animals. Proper training and redirection of this behavior are essential to ensure their herding instincts are appropriately managed.

Versatility in Training

Collies are not only skilled in obedience training but also excel in various dog sports and activities. They can participate in agility, flyball, tracking, and even advanced tricks. Their intelligence and athleticism make them versatile companions who can thrive in a wide range of training endeavors.

Adaptability to Living Environments

Collies are generally adaptable to different living environments, including apartments, suburban homes, or rural settings. However, they do require regular exercise and mental stimulation to prevent boredom and restlessness. A Collie’s adaptability can be enhanced through proper socialization and exposure to different environments and experiences from a young age.

Working vs. Companion Roles

While Collies have a strong working background as herding dogs, they have also excelled as companion animals. Many Collies have successfully transitioned into roles as therapy dogs, search and rescue dogs, or assistance dogs due to their intelligence, trainability, and adaptability.

In summary, Collies are highly trainable and adaptable dogs. Their intelligence, eagerness to please, and versatility make them ideal candidates for obedience training and various dog sports. They can adapt to different living environments, provided they receive the necessary exercise, mental stimulation, and socialization. Whether as working dogs or beloved companions, Collies thrive when given the opportunity to learn and engage in meaningful activities.


Exercise Requirements and Energy Level

Collies have moderate exercise requirements and are known for their energy and stamina. This section will explore the exercise needs and energy levels of Collies, including the recommended amount of physical activity, mental stimulation, and ways to keep them engaged and satisfied.

Daily Exercise

Collies benefit from daily exercise to keep them physically and mentally stimulated. On average, they require about 60 to 90 minutes of exercise per day. This can be achieved through activities such as brisk walks, jogging, hiking, or playing fetch in a secure area. Engaging in interactive play sessions, such as agility or obedience training, can also help fulfill their exercise needs.

Mental Stimulation

In addition to physical exercise, Collies require mental stimulation to prevent boredom and destructive behaviors. Their intelligent and inquisitive nature thrives on mental challenges. Engaging them in puzzle toys, interactive games, and obedience training sessions can help keep their minds active and fulfilled.

Herding Activities

Given their herding background, Collies may enjoy activities that tap into their natural instincts. Participating in herding trials or activities that simulate herding tasks, such as agility courses or scent work, can provide a fulfilling and mentally stimulating experience for Collies.

Adaptability to Living Spaces

Collies can adapt to various living spaces, including apartments, as long as their exercise needs are met. However, they do require ample space to move and play, so access to a securely fenced yard or regular visits to a dog park are beneficial. Living in a rural or suburban area with access to open spaces can also provide opportunities for them to engage in more vigorous exercise.

Considerations for Puppies and Older Collies

Puppies and young Collies have higher energy levels and may require additional exercise and playtime to burn off their excess energy. As Collies age, their exercise needs may decrease slightly, but they still require regular activity to maintain their health and well-being. It is important to adapt their exercise routine to suit their age and physical condition, ensuring they receive appropriate exercise without overexertion.

Weather Considerations

Collies have a thick double coat that provides insulation in colder weather, making them well-suited for outdoor activities in moderate temperatures. However, they may be sensitive to extreme heat due to their dense coat, and precautions should be taken to prevent overheating. Avoiding exercise during the hottest parts of the day, providing shade and fresh water, and opting for cooler activities are important considerations in warmer climates.

In summary, Collies have moderate exercise requirements and high energy levels. Daily exercise, mental stimulation, and engaging in activities that tap into their herding instincts are essential for their overall well-being. Whether through physical exercise, mental challenges, or herding-related activities, providing Collies with outlets for their energy and intelligence is key to maintaining a happy and healthy companion.


Grooming Requirements

Collies have a beautiful and distinctive coat that requires regular grooming to keep it healthy and looking its best. This section will cover the grooming requirements of Collies, including coat care, brushing, bathing, and other grooming practices.

Coat Types

Collies come in two coat varieties: Rough Collies and Smooth Collies. The Rough Collie has a long, dense, and abundant double coat, while the Smooth Collie has a shorter and coarser outer coat with a dense undercoat. Both varieties require regular grooming, although the specific care may differ.


Regular brushing is essential for maintaining the Collie’s coat and preventing matting. For Rough Collies, daily brushing is recommended to prevent tangles and remove loose hair. A combination of slicker brush and a wide-toothed comb can be used to gently remove tangles and keep the coat looking neat. Smooth Collies can be brushed once or twice a week to remove loose hair and keep the coat smooth and shiny.


Collies generally do not require frequent baths unless they get dirty or develop an odor. Over-bathing can strip the coat of its natural oils, leading to dryness and skin issues. When bathing a Collie, it is important to use a mild dog shampoo and thoroughly rinse the coat to prevent any product residue. Additionally, the ears should be carefully cleaned and dried to prevent moisture buildup.

Coat Maintenance

In addition to regular brushing, Collies may require coat maintenance to keep them looking their best. This may include trimming the hair on the paws, around the ears, and on the tail to achieve a clean and well-groomed appearance. Some owners may choose to have a professional groomer trim their Collie’s coat periodically to maintain a desired length and shape.


Collies are moderate to heavy shedders, especially during shedding seasons. Regular brushing helps to remove loose hair and minimize shedding around the house. Using a de-shedding tool or undercoat rake can be particularly effective in reducing shedding by removing the loose undercoat.

Other Grooming Practices

Routine grooming practices such as nail trimming, teeth brushing, and ear cleaning are important for Collies’ overall health and hygiene. Nails should be trimmed regularly to prevent them from becoming too long or causing discomfort. Teeth should be brushed regularly to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental issues. Ears should be checked and cleaned as needed to prevent infections.

Professional Grooming

While Collies can be groomed at home, some owners may prefer to take their dogs to a professional groomer for a more meticulous grooming session. Professional groomers can provide services such as coat trimming, shaping, and maintenance, as well as additional treatments like de-shedding or specialized breed-specific grooming.

In summary, Collies have specific grooming requirements to keep their coat healthy, manageable, and aesthetically pleasing. Regular brushing, occasional bathing, and other grooming practices such as coat maintenance, shedding control, and routine care contribute to maintaining the Collie’s overall well-being and a well-groomed appearance.



Health Issues

Like all dog breeds, Collies are prone to certain health issues that potential owners should be aware of. This section will discuss common health issues that can affect Collies, including hereditary conditions, as well as steps that can be taken to promote their overall health and well-being.

Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA)

Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) is a hereditary eye condition that is relatively common in the breed. It can range from mild to severe and can affect the retina, optic nerve, and other structures of the eye. Responsible breeders conduct eye screenings to detect CEA, and potential owners should ensure that their puppy’s parents have been tested for this condition.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) is another hereditary eye disorder that can occur in Collies. It causes the degeneration of the retina, leading to progressive vision loss and eventual blindness. PRA is often detected through genetic testing, and responsible breeders take steps to minimize its occurrence in their breeding programs.

Hip Dysplasia

Hip Dysplasia is a common orthopedic condition that affects many dog breeds, including Collies. It occurs when the hip joint does not develop properly, leading to issues with mobility and potentially causing pain and arthritis. Responsible breeding practices, including hip evaluations of breeding stock, can help reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia in the breed.


Dermatomyositis is a hereditary autoimmune skin disease that can affect Collies. It causes inflammation of the skin and muscles, leading to skin lesions, hair loss, and muscle weakness. While there is no cure for dermatomyositis, management of symptoms can be achieved through medication and proper care.


Epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, can occur in Collies. While the exact cause of epilepsy is often unknown, it is believed to have a hereditary component. Veterinarians can help manage epilepsy through medication and monitoring, allowing affected Collies to live relatively normal lives.

Autoimmune Disorders

Collies may be prone to various autoimmune disorders, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own tissues. Conditions such as autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia have been reported in the breed. Regular veterinary check-ups and blood tests can help detect and manage these conditions if they arise.

Responsible Breeding Practices

Responsible breeders prioritize the health of their breeding stock and take steps to minimize the occurrence of hereditary conditions in their puppies. They conduct health screenings, such as eye exams and hip evaluations, and select breeding pairs with healthy genetic backgrounds. Potential Collie owners should seek out reputable breeders who prioritize the health and well-being of their dogs.

Routine Veterinary Care

Regular veterinary check-ups, vaccinations, and preventive care are essential for maintaining the overall health of Collies. Routine examinations allow for early detection and treatment of any health issues that may arise. Additionally, proper nutrition, exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight are important for promoting overall well-being and reducing the risk of certain health problems.

In summary, while Collies are generally a healthy breed, they may be susceptible to certain hereditary conditions and other health issues. Responsible breeding practices, routine veterinary care, and awareness of potential health concerns play crucial roles in promoting the well-being of Collies and ensuring they lead happy and healthy lives.


Comparable Breeds

While the Collie is a unique and beloved breed, there are other dog breeds that share similar characteristics and may be of interest to those considering a Collie. This section will explore some comparable breeds that exhibit traits and qualities reminiscent of the Collie.

Border Collie

The Border Collie is often considered a close relative to the Collie, sharing a common herding heritage. Known for their exceptional intelligence, agility, and work ethic, Border Collies are highly trainable and excel in various dog sports and herding trials. Like Collies, they are energetic and require regular exercise and mental stimulation.

Australian Shepherd

The Australian Shepherd is another breed that is often compared to the Collie due to their similar appearance and herding backgrounds. Australian Shepherds are intelligent, versatile, and highly trainable. They are known for their high energy levels and require ample exercise and mental stimulation to thrive.

Shetland Sheepdog

The Shetland Sheepdog, or Sheltie, bears a striking resemblance to the Collie in a smaller package. Like Collies, Shelties are intelligent, loyal, and excel in obedience training. They are also known for their herding instincts and can be active and energetic companions. Shelties make great family pets and are often fond of children.

Rough and Smooth Collie Varieties

Within the Collie breed itself, there are two distinct varieties: the Rough Collie and the Smooth Collie. The Rough Collie has a long, flowing coat, while the Smooth Collie has a shorter and coarser coat. Both varieties share the Collie’s intelligence, loyalty, and gentle nature. Choosing between the Rough or Smooth Collie varieties may depend on personal preference for grooming requirements and overall appearance.

Australian Cattle Dog

The Australian Cattle Dog, also known as the Blue Heeler, is a breed known for its herding abilities and intelligence. Like Collies, they are loyal, protective, and highly trainable. Australian Cattle Dogs are energetic and require regular exercise and mental stimulation to prevent boredom and destructive behaviors.

Welsh Corgi

The Welsh Corgi, particularly the Pembroke Welsh Corgi, is a breed that shares some similarities with the Collie. Both breeds have herding backgrounds and exhibit intelligence, loyalty, and affectionate nature. While Corgis are smaller in size compared to Collies, they are energetic and require daily exercise and mental stimulation.

While these breeds share some similarities with the Collie, it is important to remember that each breed has its own unique characteristics and care requirements. Potential owners should thoroughly research and consider the specific needs and traits of each breed to find the best fit for their lifestyle and preferences.


Notable Dogs from This Breed

Throughout history, many Collies have made their mark and left a lasting legacy. This section will highlight some notable dogs from the Collie breed who have achieved recognition and made significant contributions in various fields.


Undoubtedly, one of the most famous Collies of all time is Lassie. This fictional character, created by Eric Knight in his 1938 novel “Lassie Come-Home,” has become an icon in popular culture. Lassie, known for her loyalty, intelligence, and heroic nature, has been portrayed in films, television shows, and books. Lassie’s character has inspired generations and has solidified the Collie’s reputation as a devoted and heroic breed.

Ch. Sunnybank Lad

Ch. Sunnybank Lad, also known as “Sunnybank Collie,” is considered one of the most influential Collies in the breed’s history. Born in 1890, Sunnybank Lad was owned by Albert Payson Terhune, a renowned author and breeder of Rough Collies. The success of Terhune’s books, which often featured Sunnybank Lad, helped popularize the Collie breed and contributed to its recognition and admiration in the early 20th century.

Ch. Wyndlair Cherokee Vindication

Ch. Wyndlair Cherokee Vindication, commonly known as “Vinnie,” gained recognition in the show ring by winning Best in Show at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 2010. This Smooth Collie made history as the first Collie to win this prestigious honor since the Rough Collie, Laund Loyalty of Bellhaven, won it in 1929. Vinnie’s win brought attention to the Smooth Collie variety and showcased the breed’s elegance and showmanship.


Buddy, also known as “Air Buddy,” made a unique mark in the film industry as a talented and athletic Collie. He starred in the popular Air Bud series of films, where he showcased his skills in various sports, including basketball, soccer, football, and volleyball. His performances not only entertained audiences but also highlighted the breed’s intelligence, trainability, and versatility.

Search and Rescue Collies

Collies have also made significant contributions in search and rescue operations. Their intelligence, keen senses, and ability to work in challenging environments have made them valuable assets in locating missing individuals. Collies have been trained to track scents, navigate difficult terrain, and assist in search missions, showcasing their exceptional abilities and dedication to helping others.

These notable Collies, along with countless others, have left a lasting impact on the Collie breed and have helped shape its reputation as a loyal, intelligent, and versatile companion. Their achievements in various fields have not only brought recognition to the breed but have also demonstrated the Collie’s exceptional qualities and capabilities.

The Collie continues to be cherished as a working dog and a beloved companion who excels in dog sports, obedience trials and therapy work.

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